Annual report pursuant to section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2013
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies



Basis of presentation


The consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) and include the accounts of the Company. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.


Use of estimates


The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in our consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes. Estimates in these consolidated financial statements include asset valuations, estimates of future cash flows from and the economic useful lives of long-lived assets, certain accrued liabilities, income taxes and tax valuation allowances, and fair value estimates. Despite management’s intention to establish accurate estimates and reasonable assumptions, actual results could differ materially from these estimates and assumptions.




The Company considers all highly liquid investments with maturities of three months or less at the time of purchase to be cash equivalents. The Company held no cash equivalents at December 31, 2013 and 2012.


The Company maintains cash and cash equivalent deposit accounts at several financial institutions. Accounts at these institutions are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation up to $250,000. The Company’s cash balance at times may exceed these limits. As of December 31, 2013 and 2012, the Company did not have any amounts in excess of federally insured limits on deposit.




Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or market. Cost is determined using the average cost method. Market is defined as sales price less cost to dispose and a normal profit margin. Inventory costs include materials and third party costs.


Management provides a reserve against inventory for known or expected inventory obsolescence. The reserve is determined by specific review of inventory items for product age and quality which may affect saleability. At December 31, 2013 and 2012, management determined that a reserve was not necessary.


Property and equipment, net


Property and equipment are recorded at cost, less accumulated depreciation. Equipment under capital lease obligations and leasehold improvements are amortized on the straight-line method over the shorter period of the lease term or the estimated useful life of the equipment. Such amortization is included in depreciation and amortization in the consolidated financial statements.


Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the respective assets as follows.


Furniture and office equipment 7 years
Research and development equipment 3 to 7 years
Information technology equipment 5 years
Software 3 years


Major additions and improvements are capitalized, and routine expenditures for repairs and maintenance are charged to expense as incurred. When assets are retired or otherwise disposed of, the cost and related accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts, and any resulting gain or loss is charged to income for the period.


Impairment of long-lived assets


In accordance with ASC No. 360, Property, Plant, and Equipment, the Company evaluates long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset or group of assets, as appropriate, may not be recoverable.


When the sum of the undiscounted future net cash flows expected to result from the use and the eventual disposition is less than the carrying amounts, an impairment loss would be measured based on the discounted cash flows compared to the carrying amounts. There was no impairment charge recorded for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012 and from inception to December 31, 2013.


Research grant income


The Company recognizes revenue on cost reimbursement grant award contracts when allowable and reimbursable expenses are incurred, and upon meeting the legal and contractual requirements of the funding source.


Fair value measurements


US GAAP establishes a framework for measuring fair value. That framework provides a fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value. The hierarchy gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1 measurements) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3 measurements).


The three levels of the fair value hierarchy are described below:


  Level 1:   Inputs to the valuation methodology are unadjusted quoted prices for identical assets or liabilities in active markets that the Company has the ability to access.
  Level 2:   Inputs to the valuation methodology include:


  Quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets;
  Quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in inactive markets;
  Inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability; and
  Inputs that are derived principally from or corroborated by observable market data by correlation or other means.
  If the asset or liability has a specified (contractual) term, the Level 2 input must be observable for substantially the full term of the asset or liability.


  Level 3:   Inputs to the valuation methodology are unobservable and significant to the fair value measurement.


The asset’s or liability’s fair value measurement level within the fair value hierarchy is based on the lowest level of any input that is significant to the fair value measurement. Valuation techniques used need to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs.


As of December 31, 2013 and 2012, there were no recurring fair value measurements of assets and liabilities subsequent to initial recognition.


The fair value of the preferred stock warrants is based on unobservable inputs. Such instruments are generally classified within Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy. The Company estimated the fair value of the warrants using an option-pricing model incorporating assumptions that market participants would use in their estimates of fair value. Some of these assumptions include estimates for interest rates, expected dividends, and the fair value of the underlying preferred stock. The estimated fair value of the underlying preferred stock is itself determined using an option-pricing method. Under this method, the fair value of an enterprise’s common and preferred stock is estimated as the net value of a series of call options, representing the present value of the expected future returns to the stockholders.


The Company’s other financial instruments include borrowings under notes payable. The carrying values of its financial instruments approximate their fair values due to the fact that they are short-term in nature at December 31, 2013 and 2012 (Level 3).




Debt instruments with detachable warrants to acquire shares that may be redeemable are accounted for in accordance with ASC No. 470, Debt. Under ASC No. 470, detachable warrants to purchase the Company’s series A preferred stock were classified as a discount on the underlying note on the consolidated balance sheets and carried at fair value. The Company initially measured the warrants at fair value on issuance.


Differences between fair value of the series B preferred stock and warrants on the date of grant were recorded as additional paid in capital.


Stock based compensation


The Company accounts for stock based compensation costs under the provisions of ASC No. 718, Compensation—Stock Compensation, which requires the measurement and recognition of compensation expense related to the fair value of stock based compensation awards that are ultimately expected to vest. Stock based compensation expense recognized includes the compensation cost for all share based payments granted to employees based on the grant date fair value estimated in accordance with the provisions of ASC No. 718. ASC No. 718 is also applied to awards modified, repurchased, or canceled during the periods reported.


Basic and diluted net income (loss) per share


The Company’s convertible redeemable preferred stock was entitled to receive dividends of up to 8.5% at the original issue price per annum when and if dividends are declared on the common stock and thereafter participate pro rata on an as converted basis with the common stock holders on any distributions to common stockholders. They were therefore participating securities. As a result, the Company calculates the net income (loss) per share using the two-class method. Accordingly, the net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders is derived from the net income (loss) for the period and, in periods in which the Company has net income attributable to common stockholders, an adjustment is made for the noncumulative dividends and allocations of earnings to participating securities based on their outstanding shareholder rights.


Under the two-class method, the net loss attributable to common stockholders is not allocated to the convertible redeemable preferred stock as the convertible redeemable preferred stock did not have a contractual obligation to share in the Company’s losses.


The diluted net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders is computed by giving effect to all potential common stock equivalents outstanding for the period determined using the treasury stock method or the as-if converted method as applicable. In periods when the Company incurred a net loss attributable to common stockholders, stock options and warrants to purchase common stock were considered to be common stock equivalents, but have been excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders as their effect is antidilutive.


Income taxes


The Company accounts for income taxes under an asset and liability approach. Deferred income taxes reflect the impact of temporary differences between assets and liabilities recognized for financial reporting purposes and the amounts recognized for income tax reporting purposes, net operating loss carry-forwards, and other tax credits measured by applying currently enacted tax laws. A valuation allowance is provided when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to an amount that is more likely than not to be realized.


The Company determines whether a tax position is more likely than not to be sustained upon examination, including resolution of any related appeals or litigation processes, based on the technical merits of the position. The Company uses a two-step approach to recognizing and measuring uncertain tax positions. The first step is to evaluate the tax position for recognition by determining if the weight of available evidence indicates that it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained upon tax authority examination, including resolution of related appeals or litigation processes, if any. The second step is to measure the tax benefit as the largest amount that is more than 50% likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement.


The Company files income tax returns in the United States (“U.S.”) Federal, State of Hawaii, and State of California jurisdictions. Tax regulations within each jurisdiction are subject to the interpretation of the related tax laws and regulations and require significant judgment to apply.


The following represents the open tax years and jurisdictions that the Company used in its evaluation of tax positions:


Open tax years ending    
December 31,   Jurisdiction
2010 - 2013   U.S. Federal
2010 - 2013   State of Hawaii
2010 - 2013   State of California


The Company did not recognize any tax liabilities for income taxes associated with unrecognized tax benefits as of December 31, 2013 and 2012. It is the Company’s policy to include interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits, if any, within the provision for taxes in the statements of operations.




The Company expenses all advertising costs as incurred and are included as an element of general and administrative costs in the accompanying statements of operations. There were no advertising expenses for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012 and for the period from inception (March 23, 2006) to December 31, 2013.


Research and development


Research and development costs are expensed as incurred and consists primarily of salaries and wages of scientists and related personnel engaged in research and development activities, scientific consultations, manufacturing of product candidates, third-party research, laboratory supplies, rents associated with operating leased laboratory equipment, and scientific advisory boards. The focus of these costs is on the development of astaxanthin technologies.


Recently issued accounting standards


In May 2011, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2011-04, Fair Value Measurements, which amends the fair value measurement guidance and includes some enhanced disclosure requirements. The most significant change in disclosures is an expansion of the information required for Level 3 measurements based on unobservable inputs. The standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2011. The Company adopted this standard in the first quarter of 2012. The adoption of this standard did not have a material effect on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.


In September 2011, the FASB ASU No. 2011-08, Intangibles – Goodwill and Other Testing Goodwill for Impairment, issued amendments to its accounting guidance on testing goodwill for impairment. The amendments allow entities to use a qualitative approach to test goodwill for impairment. This permits an entity to first perform a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value. If it is concluded that this is the case, it is required to perform the currently prescribed two-step goodwill impairment test. Otherwise, the two-step goodwill impairment test is not required. This guidance is effective for annual and interim goodwill impairment test performed for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2011 and early adoption is permitted. The Company adopted this standard in the first quarter of year 2012 and the implementation thereof did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements. 


In February 2013, the FASB ASU No. 2013-02, Comprehensive Income (Topic 220): Reporting of Amounts Reclassified Out of Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income, to require reporting of the impact of significant reclassifications out of accumulated other comprehensive income or loss on the line items on the statement of operations, if a reclassification is required in its entirety in one reporting period. This ASU is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2012. The adoption of the ASU did not have a significant impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.


In July 2013, the FASB issued ASU No. 2013-11, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Presentation of an Unrecognized Tax Benefit When a Net Operating Loss Carryforward, a Similar Tax Loss, or a Tax Credit Carryforward Exists, to specify when an unrecognized tax benefit should be presented as a liability versus an offset against a deferred tax asset. The ASU is effective prospectively for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2013. The Company is currently assessing the impact of this ASU on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.


Management does not believe that any other recently issued, but not yet effective accounting pronouncements, if adopted, would have a material effect on the accompanying consolidated financial statements.