Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2015
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
NOTE 2 SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Basis of presentation
The consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP and include the accounts of Cardax, Inc., and its wholly owned subsidiary, Cardax Pharma, Inc., and its predecessor, Cardax Pharmaceuticals, Inc., which was merged with and into Cardax, Inc., on December 30, 2015. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in our consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes. Estimates in these consolidated financial statements include asset valuations, estimates of future cash flows from and the economic useful lives of long-lived assets, valuations of stock compensation, certain accrued liabilities, income taxes and tax valuation allowances, and fair value estimates. Despite managements intention to establish accurate estimates and reasonable assumptions, actual results could differ materially from these estimates and assumptions.
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with maturities of three months or less at the time of purchase to be cash equivalents. The Company held no cash equivalents at December 31, 2015 and 2014.
The Company maintains cash deposit accounts at one financial institution. Accounts at this institution are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation up to $250,000. The Companys cash balance at times may exceed these limits. As of December 31, 2015, the Company had $85,140 in excess of federally insured limits on deposit. As of December 31, 2014, the Company did not have any amounts in excess of federally insured limits on deposit.
Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or market. Cost is determined using the average cost method. Market is defined as sales price less cost to dispose and a normal profit margin. Inventory costs include materials and third party costs.
The Company provides a reserve against inventory for known or expected inventory obsolescence. The reserve is determined by specific review of inventory items for product age and quality that may affect salability.
Property and equipment, net
Property and equipment are recorded at cost, less depreciation. Equipment under capital lease obligations and leasehold improvements are amortized on the straight-line method over the shorter period of the lease term or the estimated useful life of the equipment. Such amortization is included in depreciation and amortization in the consolidated financial statements. Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the respective assets are as follows.
Major additions and improvements are capitalized, and routine expenditures for repairs and maintenance are charged to expense as incurred. When assets are retired or otherwise disposed of, the cost and related accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts, and any resulting gain or loss is charged to income for the period.
Impairment of long-lived assets
In accordance with ASC 360 No., Property, Plant, and Equipment; the Company evaluates long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset or group of assets, as appropriate, may not be recoverable.
When the sum of the undiscounted future net cash flows expected to result from the use and the eventual disposition is less than the carrying amounts, an impairment loss would be measured based on the discounted cash flows compared to the carrying amounts. There was no impairment charge recorded for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014.
Fair value measurements
U.S. GAAP establishes a framework for measuring fair value. That framework provides a fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value. The hierarchy gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1 measurements) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3 measurements).
The three levels of the fair value hierarchy are described below:
If the asset or liability has a specified (contractual) term, the Level 2 input must be observable for substantially the full term of the asset or liability.
The assets or liabilitys fair value measurement level within the fair value hierarchy is based on the lowest level of any input that is significant to the fair value measurement. Valuation techniques used need to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs.
As of December 31, 2015 and 2014, there were no recurring fair value measurements of assets and liabilities subsequent to initial recognition.
Stock based compensation
The Company accounts for stock based compensation costs under the provisions of ASC No. 718, CompensationStock Compensation, which requires the measurement and recognition of compensation expense related to the fair value of stock based compensation awards that are ultimately expected to vest. Stock based compensation expense recognized includes the compensation cost for all stock based payments granted to employees, officers, directors, and consultants based on the grant date fair value estimated in accordance with the provisions of ASC No. 718. ASC No. 718 is also applied to awards modified, repurchased, or canceled during the periods reported.
Basic and diluted net income (loss) per share
Basic earnings per common share is calculated by dividing net loss for the year by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the year. Diluted earnings per common share is calculated by dividing net loss for the year by the sum of the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the year plus the number of potentially dilutive common shares (dilutive securities) that were outstanding during the year. Dilutive securities include options granted pursuant to the Companys stock option plans, and warrants issued to non-employees. Potentially dilutive securities are excluded from the computation of earnings per share in periods in which a net loss is reported, as their effect would be antidilutive.
The Company accounts for income taxes under an asset and liability approach. Deferred income taxes reflect the impact of temporary differences between assets and liabilities recognized for financial reporting purposes and the amounts recognized for income tax reporting purposes, net operating loss carry-forwards, and other tax credits measured by applying currently enacted tax laws. A valuation allowance is provided when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to an amount that is more likely than not to be realized.
The Company determines whether a tax position is more likely than not to be sustained upon examination, including resolution of any related appeals or litigation processes, based on the technical merits of the position. The Company uses a two-step approach to recognizing and measuring uncertain tax positions. The first step is to evaluate the tax position for recognition by determining if the weight of available evidence indicates that it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained upon tax authority examination, including resolution of related appeals or litigation processes, if any. The second step is to measure the tax benefit as the largest amount that is more than 50% likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement.
The Company files income tax returns in the United States (U.S.) Federal and the States of Hawaii and California jurisdictions. Tax regulations within each jurisdiction are subject to the interpretation of the related tax laws and regulations and require significant judgment to apply.
The Company did not recognize any tax liabilities for income taxes associated with unrecognized tax benefits as of December 31, 2015 and 2014. It is the Companys policy is to include interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits, if any, within the provision for taxes in the statements of operations.
Advertising costs are expensed as incurred and are included as an element of general and administrative costs in the accompanying statements of operations. There were no advertising expenses for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014.
Research and development
Research and development costs are expensed as incurred and consists primarily of salaries and wages of scientists and related personnel engaged in research and development activities, scientific consultations, manufacturing of product candidates, third-party research, laboratory supplies, rents associated with operating leased laboratory equipment, and scientific advisory boards. The focus of these costs is on the development of Astaxanthin technologies.
The Company has made certain reclassifications to conform its prior periods data to the current presentation. These reclassifications had no effect on the reported results of operations or cash flows.
Recent accounting pronouncements
In February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2016-02, Leases. The main provisions of ASU No. 2016-02 require management to recognize lease assets and lease liabilities for all leases. ASU 2016-02 retains a distinction between finance leases and operating leases. The classification criteria for distinguishing between finance leases and operating leases are substantially similar to the classification criteria for distinguishing between capital leases and operating leases in the previous leases guidance. The result of retaining a distinction between finance leases and operating leases is that under the lessee accounting model, the effect of leases in the statement of comprehensive income and the statement of cash flows is largely unchanged from previous GAAP. The amendments in this ASU are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company is currently assessing the impact of this ASU on the Companys consolidated financial statements.
In November 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-17, Income taxes. The provisions of ASU No. 2015-17 simplify the presentation of deferred income taxes, the amendments in this ASU require that deferred tax liabilities and assets be classified as noncurrent in a classified statement of financial position. The amendments in this Update apply to all entities that present a classified statement of financial position. The current requirement that deferred tax liabilities and assets of a tax-paying component of an entity be offset and presented as a single amount is not affected by the amendments in this Update. The amendments in this ASU are effective for the annual period ending after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company does not believe that the adoption of this update will have a significant impact to the Companys consolidated financial statements.
In July 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-11, InventorySimplifying the Measurement of Inventory. The provisions of ASU No. 2015-11 clarify measurement of inventory at the lower of cost or market and net realizable value. Net realizable value is the estimated selling prices in the ordinary course of business, less reasonably predictable costs of completion, disposal, and transportation. The amendments in this ASU are effective for the annual period ending after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company does not believe that the adoption of this update will have a significant impact to the Companys consolidated financial statements.
In August 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-15, Presentation of Financial StatementsGoing Concern. The provisions of ASU No. 2014-15 require management to assess an entitys ability to continue as a going concern by incorporating and expanding upon certain principles that are currently in U.S. auditing standards. Specifically, the amendments (1) provide a definition of the term substantial doubt, (2) require an evaluation every reporting period including interim periods, (3) provide principles for considering the mitigating effect of managements plans, (4) require certain disclosures when substantial doubt is alleviated as a result of consideration of managements plans, (5) require an express statement and other disclosures when substantial doubt is not alleviated, and (6) require an assessment for a period of one year after the date that the financial statements are issued (or available to be issued). The amendments in this ASU are effective for the annual period ending after December 15, 2016, and for annual periods and interim periods thereafter. The Company is currently assessing the impact of this ASU on the Companys consolidated financial statements.
Management does not believe that any other recently issued, but not yet effective accounting pronouncements, if adopted, would have a material effect on the consolidated financial statements filed with this annual report.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef