Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2014
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies



Basis of presentation


The consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) and include the accounts of Cardax, Inc., and its wholly owned subsidiary, Cardax Pharma, Inc., and its predecessor, Cardax Pharmaceuticals, Inc. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.


Use of estimates


The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in our consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes. Estimates in these consolidated financial statements include asset valuations, estimates of future cash flows from and the economic useful lives of long-lived assets, valuations of stock compensation, certain accrued liabilities, income taxes and tax valuation allowances, and fair value estimates. Despite management’s intention to establish accurate estimates and reasonable assumptions, actual results could differ materially from these estimates and assumptions.




The Company considers all highly liquid investments with maturities of three months or less at the time of purchase to be cash equivalents. The Company held no cash equivalents at December 31, 2014 and 2013.


The Company maintains cash and cash equivalent deposit accounts at several financial institutions. Accounts at these institutions are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation up to $250,000. The Company’s cash balance at times may exceed these limits. As of December 31, 2014 and 2013, the Company did not have any amounts in excess of federally insured limits on deposit.




Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or market. Cost is determined using the average cost method. Market is defined as sales price less cost to dispose and a normal profit margin. Inventory costs include materials and third party costs.


The Company provides a reserve against inventory for known or expected inventory obsolescence. The reserve is determined by specific review of inventory items for product age and quality which may affect salability. At December 31, 2014 and 2013, the Company determined that a reserve was not necessary.


Property and equipment, net


Property and equipment are recorded at cost, less depreciation. Equipment under capital lease obligations and leasehold improvements are amortized on the straight-line method over the shorter period of the lease term or the estimated useful life of the equipment. Such amortization is included in depreciation and amortization in the consolidated financial statements.


Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the respective assets are as follows.


Furniture and office equipment   7 years
Research and development equipment   3 to 7 years
Information technology equipment   5 years
Software   3 years


Major additions and improvements are capitalized, and routine expenditures for repairs and maintenance are charged to expense as incurred. When assets are retired or otherwise disposed of, the cost and related accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts, and any resulting gain or loss is charged to income for the period.


Impairment of long-lived assets


In accordance with ASC 360 No., Property, Plant, and Equipment; the Company evaluates long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset or group of assets, as appropriate, may not be recoverable.


When the sum of the undiscounted future net cash flows expected to result from the use and the eventual disposition is less than the carrying amounts, an impairment loss would be measured based on the discounted cash flows compared to the carrying amounts. There was no impairment charge recorded for the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013.


Fair value measurements


US GAAP establishes a framework for measuring fair value. That framework provides a fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value. The hierarchy gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1 measurements) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3 measurements).


The three levels of the fair value hierarchy are described below:


  Level 1: Inputs to the valuation methodology are unadjusted quoted prices for identical assets or liabilities in active markets that the Company has the ability to access.
  Level 2: Inputs to the valuation methodology include:


  Quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets;
  Quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in inactive markets;
  Inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability; and
  Inputs that are derived principally from or corroborated by observable market data by correlation or other means.


If the asset or liability has a specified (contractual) term, the Level 2 input must be observable for substantially the full term of the asset or liability.


  Level 3: Inputs to the valuation methodology are unobservable and significant to the fair value measurement.


The asset’s or liability’s fair value measurement level within the fair value hierarchy is based on the lowest level of any input that is significant to the fair value measurement. Valuation techniques used need to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs.


As of December 31, 2014 and 2013, there were no recurring fair value measurements of assets and liabilities subsequent to initial recognition.


Stock based compensation


The Company accounts for stock based compensation costs under the provisions of ASC No. 718, Compensation—Stock Compensation, which requires the measurement and recognition of compensation expense related to the fair value of stock based compensation awards that are ultimately expected to vest. Stock based compensation expense recognized includes the compensation cost for all share based payments granted to employees, officers, directors, and consultants based on the grant date fair value estimated in accordance with the provisions of ASC No. 718. ASC No. 718 is also applied to awards modified, repurchased, or canceled during the periods reported.


Basic and diluted net income (loss) per share


Basic earnings per common share is calculated by dividing net loss for the year by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the year. Diluted earnings per common share is calculated by dividing net loss for the year by the sum of the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the year plus the number of potentially dilutive common shares (“dilutive securities”) that were outstanding during the year. Dilutive securities include options granted pursuant to the Company’s stock option plans, and warrants issued to non-employees. Potentially dilutive securities are excluded from the computation of earnings per share in periods in which a net loss is reported, as their effect would be antidilutive.


Income taxes


The Company accounts for income taxes under an asset and liability approach. Deferred income taxes reflect the impact of temporary differences between assets and liabilities recognized for financial reporting purposes and the amounts recognized for income tax reporting purposes, net operating loss carry-forwards, and other tax credits measured by applying currently enacted tax laws. A valuation allowance is provided when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to an amount that is more likely than not to be realized.


The Company determines whether a tax position is more likely than not to be sustained upon examination, including resolution of any related appeals or litigation processes, based on the technical merits of the position. The Company uses a two-step approach to recognizing and measuring uncertain tax positions. The first step is to evaluate the tax position for recognition by determining if the weight of available evidence indicates that it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained upon tax authority examination, including resolution of related appeals or litigation processes, if any. The second step is to measure the tax benefit as the largest amount that is more than 50% likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement.


The Company files income tax returns in the United States (“U.S.”) Federal and the States of Hawaii and California jurisdictions. Tax regulations within each jurisdiction are subject to the interpretation of the related tax laws and regulations and require significant judgment to apply.


The following represents the open tax years and jurisdictions that the Company used in its evaluation of tax positions:


Open tax years ending
December 31,
2011 - 2014   U.S. Federal
2011 - 2014   State of Hawaii
2011 - 2014   State of California


The Company did not recognize any tax liabilities for income taxes associated with unrecognized tax benefits as of December 31, 2014 and 2013. It is the Company’s policy is to include interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits, if any, within the provision for taxes in the statements of operations.




The Company expenses all advertising costs as incurred and are included as an element of general and administrative costs in the accompanying statements of operations. There were no advertising expenses for the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013.


Research and development


Research and development costs are expensed as incurred and consists primarily of salaries and wages of scientists and related personnel engaged in research and development activities, scientific consultations, manufacturing of product candidates, third-party research, laboratory supplies, rents associated with operating leased laboratory equipment, and scientific advisory boards. The focus of these costs is on the development of Astaxanthin technologies.




The Company has made certain reclassifications to conform its prior periods’ data to the current presentation. These reclassifications had no effect on the reported results of operations or cash flows.


Recent accounting pronouncements


In June 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") No. 2014-10, Development Stage Entities – Elimination of Certain Financial Reporting requirements, Including an Amendment to Variable Interest Entities Guidance in Topic 810, Consolidation. The provisions of ASU No. 2014-10 remove the definition of a development stage entity from the Master Glossary of the Accounting Standards Codification, thereby removing the financial reporting distinction between development stage entities and other reporting entities from U.S. GAAP. In addition, the amendments eliminate the requirements for development stage entities to (1) present inception-to-date information in the statements of income, cash flows, and shareholder equity, (2) label the financial statements as those of a development stage entity, (3) disclose a description of the development stage activities in which the entity is engaged, and (4) disclose in the first year in which the entity is no longer a development stage entity that in prior years it had been in the development stage. The Company elected to early adopt the provisions of ASU No. 2014-10 as permitted by this ASU effective its June 30, 2014, financial statements. This early adoption allowed the Company to remove the disclosures noted in items (1) to (3) above.


In August 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-15, Presentation of Financial Statements—Going Concern. The provisions of ASU No. 2014-15 require management to assess an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern by incorporating and expanding upon certain principles that are currently in U.S. auditing standards. Specifically, the amendments (1) provide a definition of the term substantial doubt, (2) require an evaluation every reporting period including interim periods, (3) provide principles for considering the mitigating effect of management’s plans, (4) require certain disclosures when substantial doubt is alleviated as a result of consideration of management’s plans, (5) require an express statement and other disclosures when substantial doubt is not alleviated, and (6) require an assessment for a period of one year after the date that the financial statements are issued (or available to be issued). The amendments in this ASU are effective for the annual period ending after December 15, 2016, and for annual periods and interim periods thereafter. The Company is currently assessing the impact of this ASU on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.