Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2018
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
NOTE 2 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Basis of presentation
The consolidated financial statements have been consistently prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”) and include the accounts of Cardax, Inc., and its wholly owned subsidiary, Cardax Pharma, Inc., and its predecessor, Cardax Pharmaceuticals, Inc., which was merged with and into Cardax, Inc. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in our consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes. Estimates in these consolidated financial statements include asset valuations, estimates of future cash flows from and the economic useful lives of long-lived assets, valuations of stock compensation, certain accrued liabilities, income taxes and tax valuation allowances, and fair value estimates. Despite management’s intention to establish accurate estimates and reasonable assumptions, actual results could differ materially from these estimates and assumptions.
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with maturities of three months or less at the time of purchase to be cash equivalents. The Company held no cash equivalents as of December 31, 2018 and 2017.
The Company maintains cash deposit accounts at one financial institution. Accounts at this institution are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation up to $250,000. The Company’s cash balance at times may exceed these limits. As of December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company had $0 and $1,988,139, respectively, in excess of federally insured limits on deposit.
Accounts receivable of $157,082 and $37,243 as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively, consists of amounts due from sales of dietary supplements.
It is the Company’s policy to provide for an allowance for doubtful collections based upon a review of outstanding receivables, historical collection information, and existing economic conditions. Normal receivables are due 60 days after the issuance of the invoice. Receivables past due more than 90 days are considered delinquent. Delinquent receivables are written off based on individual credit evaluation and specific circumstances of the customer. There was no allowance necessary as of December 31, 2018 and 2017.
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost is determined using the average cost method. Net realizable value is the estimated selling prices in the ordinary course of business, less reasonably predictable costs of completion, disposal, and transportation. Inventory costs include third party costs for finished goods. The Company utilizes contract manufacturers and receives inventory in finished form.
The Company provides a reserve against inventory for known or expected inventory obsolescence. The reserve is determined by specific review of inventory items for product age and quality that may affect salability. There were no reserves necessary for inventory as of December 31, 2018 and 2017.
Property and equipment, net
Property and equipment are recorded at cost, less depreciation. Equipment under capital lease obligations and leasehold improvements are amortized on the straight-line method over the shorter period of the lease term or the estimated useful life of the equipment. Such amortization is included in depreciation and amortization in the consolidated financial statements. Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the respective assets are as follows.
Major additions and improvements are capitalized, and routine expenditures for repairs and maintenance are charged to expense as incurred. When assets are retired or otherwise disposed of, the cost and related accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts, and any resulting gain or loss is charged to income for the period.
Impairment of long-lived assets
The Company evaluates long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset or group of assets, as appropriate, may not be recoverable.
When the sum of the undiscounted future net cash flows expected to result from the use and the eventual disposition is less than the carrying amounts, an impairment loss would be measured based on the discounted cash flows compared to the carrying amounts. There was no impairment charge recorded for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017.
Revenue from contracts with customers
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued a new standard related to revenue recognition. Under the standard, revenue is recognized when a customer obtains control of promised goods or services in an amount that reflects the consideration the entity expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. In addition, the standard requires disclosure of the nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from contracts with customers.
The Company adopted this standard effective January 1, 2018, using the retrospective method. As there was no impact on contracts that were previously completed and no significant impact to contracts completed after adoption, there was no need to restate prior results from operations.
The Company recognizes revenues from its contracts with customers for its products through wholesale and e-commerce channels when goods and services have been identified, the payment terms agreed to, the contract has commercial substance, both parties have approved the contract, and it is probable that the Company will collect all substantial consideration.
The following table presents our revenues disaggregated by revenue source and geographical location. Sales and usage-based taxes are included as a component of revenues for the years ended December 31:
Sales discounts, rebates, promotional amounts to vendors, and returns and allowances are recorded as a reduction to sales in the period in which sales are recorded. Sales discounts and other adjustments are recorded at the time of sale.
Cost of goods sold
Cost of goods sold is comprised of costs to manufacture or acquire products sold to customers, direct and indirect distribution costs, and other costs incurred in the sale of goods.
Shipping and handling costs
Shipping and handling costs are included in cost of goods sold. Shipping and handling costs were $21,603 and $10,366 for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
Sales and use tax
Revenues, as presented on the accompanying income statement, include taxes collected from customers and remitted to governmental authorities. Such taxes were $3,329 and $5,132 for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
Research and development
Research and development costs are expensed as incurred and consists primarily of manufacturing of products, third-party research, laboratory supplies, and scientific advisory boards. The focus of these costs is on the development of astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, and related compounds. For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, research and development costs were $269,077 and $97,479, respectively.
Advertising costs are expensed as incurred and are included as an element of sales and marketing costs in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations. For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, advertising costs were $364,306 and $84,317, respectively.
The Company accounts for income taxes under an asset and liability approach. Deferred income taxes reflect the impact of temporary differences between assets and liabilities recognized for financial reporting purposes and the amounts recognized for income tax reporting purposes, net operating loss carry-forwards, and other tax credits measured by applying currently enacted tax laws. A valuation allowance is provided when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to an amount that is more likely than not to be realized.
The Company determines whether a tax position is more likely than not to be sustained upon examination, including resolution of any related appeals or litigation processes, based on the technical merits of the position. The Company uses a two-step approach to recognizing and measuring uncertain tax positions. The first step is to evaluate the tax position for recognition by determining if the weight of available evidence indicates that it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained upon tax authority examination, including resolution of related appeals or litigation processes, if any. The second step is to measure the tax benefit as the largest amount that is more than 50% likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement.
The Company files income tax returns in the United States (“U.S.”) Federal and the States of Hawaii and California jurisdictions. Tax regulations within each jurisdiction are subject to the interpretation of the related tax laws and regulations and require significant judgment to apply. The federal and state income tax returns of the Company are subject to examination by the IRS and state taxing authorities, generally for three years after they were filed.
The Company did not recognize any tax liabilities for income taxes associated with unrecognized tax benefits as of December 31, 2018 and 2017. The Company’s policy is to include interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits, if any, within the provision for income taxes in the consolidated statements of operations.
In 2017, the Company adopted FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2015-17, Income Taxes (Topic 740). This ASU was issued as part of the FASB’s simplification initiative focused on improving areas of U.S. GAAP for which cost and complexity may be reduced while maintaining or improving the usefulness of information disclosed within the financial statements. ASU No. 2015-17 simplifies the presentation of deferred income taxes by requiring that deferred tax liabilities and assets be presented net and classified as noncurrent in a classified statement of financial position. As a result of this adoption, the Company now presents deferred tax assets as a single line item, net, in long-term assets or labilities.
Fair value measurements
U.S. GAAP establishes a framework for measuring fair value. That framework provides a fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value. The hierarchy gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1 measurements) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3 measurements).
The three levels of the fair value hierarchy are described below:
If the asset or liability has a specified (contractual) term, the Level 2 input must be observable for substantially the full term of the asset or liability.
The asset’s or liability’s fair value measurement level within the fair value hierarchy is based on the lowest level of any input that is significant to the fair value measurement. Valuation techniques used need to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs.
As of December 31, 2018 and 2017, there were no recurring fair value measurements of assets and liabilities subsequent to initial recognition.
Stock based compensation
The Company accounts for stock-based compensation costs under the provisions of FASB’s Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) No. 718, Compensation—Stock Compensation and ASC No. 505, Equity, which requires the measurement and recognition of compensation expense related to the fair value of stock based compensation awards that are ultimately expected to vest. Stock based compensation expense recognized includes the compensation cost for all stock-based payments granted to employees, officers, directors, and consultants based on the grant date fair value estimated. These standards also apply to awards modified, repurchased, or canceled during the periods reported.
Basic and diluted net loss per share
Basic earnings per common share is calculated by dividing net loss for the year by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the year. Diluted earnings per common share is calculated by dividing net loss for the year by the sum of the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the year plus the number of potentially dilutive common shares (“dilutive securities”) that were outstanding during the year. Dilutive securities include options granted pursuant to the Company’s stock option plans, and warrants issued to non-employees. Potentially dilutive securities are excluded from the computation of earnings per share in periods in which a net loss is reported, as their effect would be antidilutive.
Recently issued accounting pronouncements
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases. This ASU requires management to recognize lease assets and lease liabilities for all leases. ASU No. 2016-02 retains a distinction between finance leases and operating leases. The classification criteria for distinguishing between finance leases and operating leases are substantially similar to the classification criteria for distinguishing between capital leases and operating leases in the previous lease guidance. The result of retaining a distinction between finance leases and operating leases is that under the lessee accounting model, the effect of leases in the statement of comprehensive income and the statement of cash flows is largely unchanged from previous U.S. GAAP. The guidance in ASU No. 2016-02 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company applied the modified retrospective approach in adopting this standard. The modified retrospective approach includes a number of optional practical expedients that the Company elected to apply; primarily the identification and classification of leases that commenced before the effective date, initial direct costs for leases that commenced before the effective date, and the ability to use hindsight in evaluating lessee options to extend or terminate a lease or to purchase the underlying asset. As part of this adoption, the Company will, in effect, continue to account for leases that commence before the effective date in accordance with previous GAAP unless the lease is modified, except that lessees are required to recognize a right-of-use asset and a lease liability for all operating leases at each reporting date based on the present value of the remaining minimum rental payments that were tracked and disclosed under previous GAAP. This adoption of this standard on January 1, 2019, resulted in the Company recognizing a right-to-use asset and lease liability of approximately $35,000. The Company elected to not recognize any right-to-use assets or liabilities for leases that are twelve months or less. Lease costs are recognized straight-line over the term of the lease. The adoption of this standard did not impact retained earnings of cash flows of the Company.
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-07, Compensation – Stock Compensation (Topic 718), Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting. This ASU is intended to simplify aspects of share-based compensation issued to non-employees by making the guidance consistent accounting for employee share-based compensation. The guidance in ASU No. 2018-07 is effective for annual reporting periods, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2018. The Company is currently in the process of evaluating the impact of the adoption of this ASU on its consolidated financial statements.
Recently issued accounting pronouncements
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement. This ASU modifies the disclosure requirements on fair value measurements in Topic 820, Fair Value Measurement, based on the concepts in the FASB’s Concepts Statement, including the consideration of costs and benefits. The guidance in ASU No. 2018-13 is effective for annual reporting periods, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2019. The Company is currently in the process of evaluating the impact of the adoption of this ASU on its consolidated financial statements.
The Company does not believe that any other recently issued, but not yet effective accounting pronouncements, if adopted, would have a material effect on the consolidated financial statements.
The Company has made certain reclassifications to conform its prior periods’ data to the current presentation. These reclassifications had no effect on the reported results of operations or cash flows.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef