Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Intangible Assets, Net

Intangible Assets, Net
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
Goodwill and Intangible Assets Disclosure [Abstract]  
Intangible Assets, Net



Intangible assets, net, consists of the following as of December 31:


    2018     2017  
Patents   $ 578,326     $ 493,027  
Less accumulated amortization     (292,512 )     (263,843 )
      285,814       229,184  
Patents pending     148,720       197,426  
Total intangible assets, net   $ 434,534     $ 426,610  


Patents are amortized straight-line over a period of fifteen years. Amortization expense was $28,669 and $23,568 for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.


The Company has capitalized costs for several patents that are still pending. In those instances, the Company has not recorded any amortization. The Company will commence amortization when these patents are approved.


The Company owns 28 issued patents, including 14 in the United States and 14 others in Europe, Canada, China, India, Japan, and Hong Kong. These patents will expire beginning in 2023 through 2028, subject to any patent term extensions of the individual patent. The Company has 1 patent application pending in the United States and 2 patent applications pending in Europe and Brazil.